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发布时间:2015-07-28 来源:人大经济论坛
作者Gerard M.Blair
The "Eff" Words
The three "Eff" words are (concise Oxford English Dictionary:
Effective – having a definite or desired effect
Efficient – productive with minimum waste or effort
Effortless – seemingly without effort; natural, easy
Personal Time Management is about winning the "Eff" words: making them apply to you and your daily routines.
What Is Personal Time Management?
Personal Time Management is about controlling the use of your most valuable (and undervalued) resource. Consider these two questions: What would happen if you spent company money with as few safeguards as you spend company time? When was the last time you scheduled a review of your time allocation?
The absence of Personal Time Management is characterized by last-minute rushes to meet deadlines, meetings which are either double booked or achieve nothing, days which seem somehow to slip unproductively by, crises which loom unexpected from nowhere. This sort of environment leads to inordinate stress and degradation of performance: it must be stopped.
Poor time management is often a symptom of overconfidence: techniques which used to work with small projects and workloads are simply reused with large ones. But inefficiencies which were insignificant in the small role are ludicrous in the large. You cannot drive a motor bike like a bicycle, nor can you manage a supermarket chain like a market stall. The demands, the problems and the payoffs for increased efficiency are all larger as your responsibility grows; you must learn to apply proper techniques or be bettered by those who do. Possibly, the reason Time Management is poorly practiced is that it so seldom forms a measured part of appraisal and performance review; what many fail to foresee, however, is how intimately it is connected to aspects which do.
差的时间管理经常是过分自信的症状:曾经与小项目一起使用的技术和工作量被简单的重复使用在那些大项目上。使得这些没有效率的小技能荒唐的使有在重大事件上。您不可能驾驶一辆摩托车像骑自行车一样,亦不能管理一间连锁超市像管理市场摊位一样。 当你的责任增加了之后,这些需求,问题和结果都会全部增大,你必须学会去使用一些适当的技术或了解那些人能做得更好。可能,时间安排不善的原因是很少去评估和去很好的执行检查; 有很多都是未能被预知的,然而,它是非常密切的与外在的方面相互联系。
Personal Time Management has many facets. Most managers recognize a few, but few recognize them all. There is the simple concept of keeping a well-ordered diary and the related idea of planned activity. But beyond these, it is a tool for the systematic ordering of your influence on events; it underpins many other managerial skills such as Effective Delegation and Project Planning.Personal Time Management is a set of tools which allow you to:
eliminate wastage
be prepared for meetings
refuse excessive workloads
monitor project progress
allocate resource (time) appropriate to a task's importance
ensure that long-term projects are not neglected
plan each day efficiently
plan each week effectively and to do so simply with a little self-discipline.

个人时间管理要面对许多方面。 多数的管理者都意识到一些,但未意识到全部。 一份秩序井然的日志和积极的计划相关的想法是保持好它的一个简单的概念。 但是在这些之外,它是一种为系统分类的会对事件有影响的一个工具; 它会加固许多其它管理技能,例如有效的团队和项目计划。
Since Personal Time Management is a management process just like any other, it must be planned, monitored and regularly reviewed. In the following sections, we will examine the basic methods and functions of Personal Time Management. Since true understanding depends upon experience, you will be asked to take part by looking at aspects of your own work. If you do not have time to this right now, ask yourself, why not?
因为个人时间的管理是一个管理过程象其它任何管理一样,必须是有计划﹑监测和有规律的检讨。 在以下部分,我们将审查个人时间管理的基本的方法和作用。 因为真实的理解取决于经验,你将通过你自己的工作去寻找。 如果你现在没有时间立刻去做这件事情,问你自己,为什么没有?
Current Practise
通用的练习 What this article is advocating is the adoption of certain practices which will give you greater control over the use and allocation of your primary resource: time. Before we start on the future, it is worth considering the present. This involves the simplistic task of keeping a note of how you spend your time for a suitably long period of time (say a week). I say simplistic since all you have to do is create a simple table, photocopy half-a-dozen copies and carry it around with you filling in a row every time you change activity. After one week, allocate time (start as you mean to go on) to reviewing this log.
这篇文章提倡什么采用哪些可行的练习都将是给你对你的主要资源的使用和分派的更加巨大的控制:时间。 在未来我们开始之前,它是值得考虑的。 这些简单的任务需要持续记录你怎样花费你的时间对于较长的一段时期(比方说一个星期)。 我说的简单是从你必须创建一个简单表,影印拷贝和运用它填你所改变过的活动。 在一个星期以后,分配时间(,意味你开始进行)去检阅这本日志。
Waste Disposal
废物处理 We are not looking here to create new categories of work to enhance efficiency (that comes later) but simply to eliminate wastage in your current practice. The average IEE Chartered Engineer earns about £27,000 per annum: about £12.50 per hour, say £1 every 5 minutes; for how many 5 minute sections of your activity would you have paid a pound? The first step is a critical appraisal of how you spend your time and to question some of your habits. In your time log, identify periods of time which might have been better used.
我们没有从这去寻找一种创新的提高工作效率的类别(它来的很迟) 是可以很方便的消除一些浪费从你的当前实践练习中。IEE为被特许的工程师每年赢得约£27,000 :据说每小时£12.50,每5分钟£1; 对于你的活动的5个周详部分你会支付多少磅? 第一步是一个评价你怎样花费你的时间去处理问题用一些习惯的方式。在你的时间日志,认识时间周期也许会做的更好。
There are various sources of waste. The most common are social: telephone calls, friends dropping by, conversations around the coffee machine. It would be foolish to eliminate all non-work related activity (we all need a break) but if it's a choice between chatting to Harry in the afternoon and meeting the next pay-related deadline... Your time log will show you if this is a problem and you might like to do something about it before your boss does.
有各种各样不同来源的浪废。 最大的共同点是社交上的: 电话﹑走访﹑在咖啡机旁交谈。 它将会愚蠢的消灭所有非工作相关的活动(我们需要打破这种方式),但是,假如选择下午和哈里聊天或是在与下个与薪水相关的最后期限的会议的一个选择… 你的时间日志将显示你如果这是个问题,和你也许喜欢做的某事,在您的上司之前。
In your time log, look at each work activity and decide objectively how much time each was worth to you, and compare that with the time you actually spent on it. An afternoon spent polishing an internal memo into a Pulitzer prize-winning piece of provocative prose is waste; an hour spent debating the leaving present of a colleague is waste; a minute spent sorting out the paper-clips is waste (unless relaxation). These types of activities will be reduced naturally by managing your own time since you will not allocate time to the trivial. Specifically, if you have a task to do, decide beforehand how long it should take and work to that deadline – then move on to the next task.
在你的时间日志,看每项活动并且客观地决定每一项活动值得你花多少时间,并且与你实际上花费的时间对比。 一个下午花在修改内部备忘录的时间用在Pulitzer获奖的刺激性的散文上是浪费; 1小时花在辩论送给离职同事的礼物上度过是浪废; 一分钟花在整理纸夹上度过是浪费(除非是为了放松)。 这些活动类型将会在管理你自己的时间被自然地减少,因为你不会分配时间到这种琐事上。 特别地,如果你有一项任务去做,预先决定它应该花多久和做这项工作的最后期限–然后继续去做下一项任务。
Another common source of waste stems from delaying work which is unpleasant by finding distractions which are less important or unproductive. Check your log to see if any tasks are being delayed simply because they are dull or difficult.
另一个普片的资源浪费来源于延迟工作它是令人不愉快的是通过较不重要或非生产性的共作产生。 检查你的日志看是否有任务被延迟,是因为他们是枯燥或困难的。
Time is often wasted in changing between activities. For this reason it is useful to group similar tasks together thus avoiding the start-up delay of each. The time log will show you where these savings can be made. You may want then to initiate a routine which deals with these on a fixed but regular basis.
时间经常被浪费在活动的反复变化中。为此将相似的任务组织在一起避免相互延迟是有用的。 时间日志将显示你可在哪里节省时间。你将会惯性的去着手处理这些在一个固定并且具有规则依据的基础上。
Doing Subordinate's Work
完成下级的工作Having considered what is complete waste, we now turn to what is merely inappropriate. Often it is simpler to do the job yourself. Using the stamp machine to frank your own letters ensures they leave by the next post; writing the missing summary in the latest progress report from your junior is more pleasant than sending it back (and it lets you choose the emphasis). Rubbish!
要考虑那些事完全是一种浪废,我们现在要把注意力转向那些不适当的事。 通常你自己会做一些简单的工作。使用邮票自动售卖机免费邮寄你自己的信件保证他们被送到下一站; 写遗失总结在你最新的进展报告比送回它(和它让您选择重点)。 垃圾!
Large gains can be made by assigning secretarial duties to secretaries: they regularly catch the next post, they type a lot faster than you. Your subordinate should be told about the missing section and told how (and why) to slant it. If you have a task which could be done by a subordinate, use the next occasion to start training him/her to do it instead of doing it yourself – you will need to spend some time monitoring the task thereafter, but far less than in doing it yourself.
大的收获可以通过分配给你的秘书去安排:他们有规律的赶到下个邮局,他们是那种比你快很多的类型。你的级别是告诉下级缺掉部分和告诉他们它的重要性 (和为什么)。 如果你有一项可以由下级完成的任务,用下一个时机去训练他或她去代替你做这事,你将要花一些时间去监督这项任务在之后的进展,但是要尽可能的让自己少做这方面的事情。
Doing the Work of Others
做其他的工作A major impact upon your work can be the tendency to help others with theirs. Now, in the spirit of an open and harmonious work environment it is obviously desirable that you should be willing to help out – but check your work log and decide how much time you spend on your own work and how much you spend on others'. For instance, if you spend a morning checking the grammar and spelling in the training material related to you last project, then that is waste. Publications should do the proofreading – that is their job; they are better at it than you; you should deal at the technical level.
一种对你的工作产生重大影的趋势,可以用它帮助其他的人。 现在,在一个开放和谐的工作环境下,明显的它是可取的,那你将很乐意的发挥出来,检查你的工作日志并决定你花多少时间在你的工作上,和花多少时间在其它的事上,例如,如果你花一个早晨检查语法和拼写在训练材料上,那么那是一种浪费。 出版社应该做好校对; 这是他们的工作,他们在这方面比你做的更好; 你应该做的是一些技术水平方面的。
The remaining problem is your manager. Consider what periods in your work log were used to perform tasks that your manager either repeated or simply negated by ignoring it or redefining the task, too late. Making your manager efficient is a very difficult task, but where it impinges upon your work and performance you must take the bull by the horns (or whatever) and confront the issue.
Managing your manager may seem a long way from Time Management, but no one impacts upon your use of time more than your immediate superior. If a task is ill defined, seek clarification (is that a one-page summary or a ten-page report?). If seemingly random alterations are asked in your deliverables, ask for the reasons and next time clarify these and similar points at the beginning. If the manager is difficult, try writing a small specification for each task before beginning it and have it agreed. While you cannot tactfully hold your manager to this contract if he/she has a change of mind, it will at least cause him/her to consider the issues early on, before you waste your time on false assumptions.
从你的时间上去管理你的管理看似一个很漫长的方法,但是没有在时间之上更能让你冲得更远更多的了。 如果在任务是不明确,要求澄清(是只有一页总结或十页报告?)。 看是任意改动在你交付使用时,寻找原因,并且下次首先澄清这些在开始相似的重点上。如果管理是很困难的,在开始之前设法写每项任务的说明书并让它得到认同。 当你不能灵活的把你的管理使用到这个合同上时,如果他或她改变主意,它将至少造成他或她在初期考虑问题原因,在你浪费你的时间在错误的假设之前。
External Appointments
外部的约会The next stage of Personal Time Management is to start taking control of your time. The first problem is appointments. Start with a simple appointments diary. In this book you will have (or at least should have) a complete list of all your known appointments for the foreseeable future. If you have omitted your regular ones (since you remember them anyway) add them now.
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