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[财经时事] China's Economy: 60 Years of Progress (Part 6) [推广有奖]

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tswangqiang 发表于 2009-10-8 07:13:18 |显示全部楼层

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Due to chaos in the economy, production declined substantially. Mass consumption and a wasting of resources ensued. Local leaders exaggerated statistics in hopes of pleasing superiors and getting credit for the achievements of others. Only later did facts prove that their production claims for steel, grain and other goods were completely false.Meanwhile, some leaders let the veneer of success go to their heads. During a food shortage, as nationwide famine was about to break out, Mao Zedong was asking, "What if there is too much grain?" Gradually, communes adopted new food distribution methods, such as public cafeterias, to feed "each according to his need."
By the end of 1958, the negative implications of these practices were finally revealed: Production had declined, enterprises had suffered major losses, daily necessities were in short supply, and the national economy was in dire straits.
In 1959, from July to August, the Eighth Plenum of the Eighth Central Committee of the CPC (the Lushan Conference) convened at Lushan in Jiangxi Province. At the beginning of the conference, Mao Zedong said the main purpose was to review experiences and lessons learned from the Great Leap Forward. Mao admitted the movement was "unbalanced and upset natural proportional relationships in the national economy." He also called the transfer of power "excessive." Later, after Defense Minister Peng Dehuai heeded Mao Zedong's request for leaders to honestly reflect on the experiences and lessons of the Great Leap Forward, Mao Zedong decided to extend the conference an additional 10 days. Mao Zedong then criticized Peng, and launched a nationwide movement to "oppose rightist tendencies." Thus, the political climate shifted dramatically from "correcting the left" to "opposing the right."
The movement to "oppose rightist tendencies" led to a second wave of "excessive egalitarianism, causing the economy further deterioration. In 1959, the nation produced a total 170 billion kilos of grain – down 30 billion from the 200 billion kilos produced in 1958. In 1960, gain output decreased to 143.5 billion kilos – less than the 143.7 billion kilos harvested in 1951. Widespread famine began to grip the nation.
Because of limited access to information and a lack of proper prevention measures, widespread malnutrition started appearing in cities and towns, leading to mass disease. Between 20 million and 40 million people in rural areas died prematurely during this period.
In autumn 1960, the CPC Central Committee finally settled on an Eight Character Policy to implement a process for "regulation, consolidation, replenishment and improvement" of the national economy. The recovery was lead by Chen Yun and a group of economic leaders from the CPC Central Committee. Its aim was to adopt measures to overcome grave economic problems caused by the Great Leap Forward and communes.
Here are some of the activities that paralleled introduction of the Eight Character Policy:

-- The CPC Central Committee convened in January 1962 with central authorities and cadres from five levels participating in a working conference on growth (called the Seven Thousand Member Plenary Session). During the conference, Mao Zedong took personal responsibility for mistakes of the Great Leap Forward and tried to calm resentful cadres. At the same time, he called for unity to overcome the challenges that would lay ahead. A group of Central Committee leaders led by Chen Yun was responsible for economic recovery and accepted the daunting task of "regulating" the national economy.
-- The central government withdrew powers that had been granted in the 1958 reforms to local governments in areas of finance, credit and enterprise jurisdiction.
-- The policy was based on a system that relied on a high degree of central decision-making power for allocating scarce resources. Key measures included ordering steel producers to completely abandon small-scale industries tied to "folk methods" of production as well as "small enterprises using modern methods." Also, roughly 30 million peasant workers who had moved to cities and towns for work were told to return to the countryside. A policy that called for closing, discontinuing, merging and restructuring industrial enterprises was implemented in cities.
Several months after the reforms were implemented, the economy gradually stabilized. And by 1964, it had largely recovered.  But while people rejoiced over economic recovery, problems inherent to central planning had resurfaced. As a result, more attention was given to further reform.
However, before the Cultural Revolution ended in 1976, an ingrained ideological belief that socialist economies were only able to allocate resources through administrative decree made it difficult to rally political support for market-oriented reform. As a result, transferring power to local governments seemed the only possible avenue for reform. This resulted in new policies that mirrored the 1958 reforms that had shifted administrative division of power. For example, large-scale economic reforms in 1970 were heralded with a 1958-style slogan: "Decentralization is the revolution. The more decentralized, the more revolutionary."
So between 1958 and '76, multiple transfers of administrative power brought disorder and ended in a return to centralized power. This is turn led to a vicious cycle in which decentralization yielded chaos and re-centralization choked the economy.
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关键词:Progress Economy econom years China Economy China PART years Progress

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金戈一杰 发表于 2009-10-8 10:40:09 |显示全部楼层
由于经济混乱,生产大幅度下降。大众消费和资源浪费接踵而至。地方领导人夸大统计,取悦上级的希望和获得信贷他人的成就。只有后来的事实证明,钢铁,粮食和其他商品的生产索赔是完全错误的。与此同时,一些领导人的成功让单板到他们头上。在食物短缺,全国饥荒即将爆发,毛泽东问:“如果有太多的粮食?”渐渐地,公社采取的诸如公共食堂新的食品分配方法,以饲料“按劳分配的需要。”
截至1958年底,这些做法的负面影响,终于发现:生产下降,企业遭受了重大损失,日用品匮乏,国民经济处于水深火热之中了。
1959年7月至8月,第八届中央委员会共产党(在庐山会议)第八次全会在庐山召开的江西省。在会议开始时,毛泽东说的主要目的是总结经验,从大跃进的经验教训。毛泽东承认运动是“不平衡的,破坏自然的国民经济比例关系。”他还呼吁权力交接“过度。”后来,国防部长彭德怀听从毛泽东的要求,为领导真诚反映的经验和大跃进的经验教训,毛泽东决定延长会议增加10天。茅责胴然后批评彭,并发起了全国性的运动,以“反对右的倾向。”因此,政治气候转变,由“纠正左”到“反对权显着。”
的运动“反对右倾化”,导致了第二次浪潮“过度的平均主义,造成经济进一步恶化,在1959年。,全国产生了粮食总产量1700.0亿公斤-从1958年生产2000亿公斤减少30亿美元。 1960年,增益输出下降到1435.0亿公斤-比1951年收获的1437.0亿公斤减少。大规模饥荒开始控制全国。
由于信息有限以及缺乏适当的预防措施,普遍营养不良开始在城市和城镇中出现,从而引发大规模的疾病。农村地区的人们之间的2000万到4000万人死于这一时期过早。
1960年秋天,中共中央终于决定了8个字符的政策实施“监管,巩固,补充和改善国家经济”的进程。回收率为陈云和经济领袖率领中共中央。其目的是采取措施,克服了大跃进和人民公社,造成严重的经济问题。
以下是一些活动的八个特征的政策并联介绍:
-中共中央1962年1月召开的由5个层次,并与中央对干部工作会议,参加的增长(称为7000名会员中全会)。会议期间,毛泽东花了的大跃进失误个人责任,并试图平息不满干部。同时,他呼吁团结,克服种种挑战,将摆在面前。中央委员会的陈云领导的领导小组,负责经济复苏,并接受了“规范”的国家经济的艰巨任务。
-中央政府撤回已经批准在1958年改革金融,信用和企业管辖权地方政府的权力。
-这一政策是基于的是,在中央决策系统的高度依赖使稀缺资源分配权力。重点措施包括下令钢铁生产商完全放弃小规模联系在一起的“民间的生产方法”以及“用现代的方法小企业的产业。”此外,约3000万农民工谁已迁居到城市和城镇被告知工作返回农村。一个所谓的政策关闭,停止,合并和重组工业企业实施在城市。
改革后实施几个月来,经济逐渐稳定下来。和1964年,它已基本康复。不过,虽然人们对经济复苏的高兴,固有的问题,中央计划已经浮现。因此,更加注意了进一步的改革。
然而,在文革结束于1976年,一种根深蒂固的思想信仰,社会主义经济体只能通过行政指令分配资源,难以团结的政治支持,以市场为取向的改革。因此,把权力移交给地方政府似乎是唯一可能的途径进行改革。这导致了新的政策,反映了1958年已经转移权力的行政区划改革。例如,大规模的经济改革在1970年与1958年被宣告式的口号是:“权力下放是革命。越分散,越革命。”
因此,1958年至'76,行政权力带来混乱和在给中央的权力交还给结束多个转让。这反过来又导致了恶性循环,产生了混乱和权力下放重新集中扼杀经济。

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