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  • 超临界CO2流体萃取传递模型的研究

    目 录 中文摘要I 英文摘要II 目录III 1. 绪论1 1.1 超临界CO2流体萃取的应用前景1 1.2 超临界CO2流体萃取的原理及工艺2 1.3 二氧化碳的临界性质5 1.4 超临界CO2流体萃取的研究意义7 1.5 超临界CO2流体萃取传质机理的研究7 2. 实验部分9 2.1 超临界CO2流体的P-V-T测定9 2.2 超临界CO2流体萃取过程传质模型推导14 2.3 萃取模型的验证18 2.4 结论19 3.总结与展望21 致谢22 参考文献23 摘 要:超临界流体萃取技术是一种高新分离技术,其应用和研究日益广泛。其中,超临界CO2流体萃取天然植物籽油已成为热门研究课题。在众多超临界流体萃取植物籽油的研究中,传质方面的研究相对较少。本文包含两个方面的内容:其一是对CO2的P-V-T数据的实验验证,涉及高压相平衡方面的知识,并且阐述了超临界CO2流体萃取天然植物籽油中传质方面的研究概况,列举了其中几种重要的传质理论模型;其二建立新型的物理模型—柱形缩心模型,以此物理模型为基础对其建立数学模型,并查取茶籽油等的文献数据来验证该模型,对于完全萃取时间的计算值与实验值较接近,所以本模型的预测值可满足放大试验的预测要求,而萃取时间对于收率的影响的预测与实验值偏离较大,有待进一步测定可靠的物理量来完善此模型。 关键词:超临界CO2流体萃取;P-V-T数据;传质模型 Abstract:Supercritical fluid extraction technology is a high-separation technology, its applications and researchs are more and more widely. Among them, the supercritical CO2 fluid extraction of natural plant oil already become a hot research topic. Among the supercritical fluid extraction of seed oil, the research of mass transfer was relatively small. This article contains two aspects: one is the P-V-T data experiments of CO2,it is related to high-pressure phase equilibrium knowledge.And described supercritical CO2 fluid extraction of natural plant oil in the area of mass profile, which listed several important theoretical model of mass transfer ; Second, establish a new physical model - column reduced heart model,also base on this physical model , a mathematical model was established.And take tea seed oil as a example, the literature search data to validate the model, the calculation for the full value of the extraction time experimental value is closer, so the prediction of the model test meets the forecast demand while the yield of extraction time for the prediction and experimental values deviate from the larger, demanding further experimental determination of reliable physical data to refine the model. Key words: supercritical CO2 fluid extraction;P-V-T data;mass transfer model

  • PLS方法应用于PTA脱水塔的软测量建模

    目 录 中文摘要I AbstractII 目录III 1. 绪论1 1.1 研究背景1 1.2 软测量建模方法研究现状2 1.3 PTA溶剂脱水塔工艺概述6 1.4 论文内容安排8 2. 实验部分9 2.1 模型说明与样本数据分析9 2.2 试验方式与性能评价指标9 2.3 样本数据特征分析10 2.4 多元线性回归建模(MLR)12 2.5 PCA_NN神经网络的软测量建模14 2.6 偏最小二乘回归建模(PLSR)18 2.7 PLSR_NN神经网络建模21 2.7.3 小结26 2.8 不同因素对PLSR_NN模型影响27 3. 结果与讨论30 3.1 实验样本数据分析及讨论 30 3.2 多元线性回归方法建模结果及讨论30 3.3 PCA_NN方法建模及讨论31 3.4 偏最小二乘回归方法建模结果及讨论32 3.5 PLSR_NN方法建模结果及讨论33 3.6 不同主元数对PLSR_NN模型影响的讨论34 3.7 节点数对PLSR_NN模型影响的讨论35 3.8 四种方法建模效果讨论37 4.总结与展望38 致谢40 参考文献41 摘 要:及时测定化工过程变量,对确保生产过程稳定、有效控制产品质量具有重要意义。目前基于实验测定的分析,时间滞后明显,不能实现产品质量精确控制的要求,而基于过程参数的软测量模型,通过采集实时样本数据,构建其与性质参数间的经验数学模型,可实时用于产品质量的在线分析和控制。本论文将基于PTA装置溶剂脱水塔化工过程采集的时序样本数据,并考虑数据属高维强相关的小样本,拟采用有偏估计的偏最小二乘回归方法,为塔顶排出的醋酸含量建立软测量模型,并将用其它经典软测量建模方法,以作比较。 关键词:软测量;偏最小二乘;PTA溶剂脱水塔;回归;主成份回归 Abstract: It is well known that to measure and estimate the chemical process variables in time has vital significance in ensuring process stabilization and effectively controlling its product quality.Based on the experimental determination of the present analysis, the time lag obviously, can not be achieved precise control of the product quality requirements, and process parameters based on the soft measurement model, sample real-time data acquisition and building parameters and the nature of their experience mathematical model can be used for real-time On-line analysis of product quality and control. The internship will be based on the PTA plant solvent dehydration tower chemical process data collected samples of the timing, and taking into account the high-dimensional data-related small sample, to be adopted biased estimate of the partial least squares regression method for the solution of acetic acid from the top in the establishment of soft measurement model, and with other classical soft measurement modeling method for comparison. Keywords:Soft-sensing; Partial least squares regression; PTA solvent dehydration tower; Regression; Principle component regression

  • 尼龙酰胺交换反应的蒙特卡罗模拟_化工专业论文

    尼龙酰胺交换反应的蒙特卡罗模拟_化工专业论文 目 录 中文摘要I 英文摘要II 目 录III 1 绪论1 1.1 Monte Carlo方法简介1 1.2 酰胺交换反应3 1.3 酰胺交换反应模拟进展5 2 理论基础及算法7 2.1 PA6/PA6IcoT反应共混体系7 2.2 PA6/PA6IcoT反应共混体系中的反应7 2.3 PA6/PA6IcoT反应共混的Monte Carlo模拟算法9 2.4 PA6/PA6IcoT反应共混模拟体系速率常数的选择10 3 结果与讨论12 3.1 伪随机数检验12 3.2 模拟样本空间大小的确定12 3.3 模拟结果12 4 总结与展望17 致 谢18 参考文献19 摘 要:酰胺交换反应是尼龙反应共混体系中存在的一类非常重要的反应,其反应程度对于共混物的性能有着极其重要的影响。本文建立了酰胺交换反应动力学的蒙特卡罗基本模型,并用该模型对PA6/PA6IcoT反应共混体系在不同操作条件的酰胺交换反应进行了模拟。模拟结果表明,提高温度,有利于加快酰胺交换反应。但即便如此,对于PA6/PA6IcoT体系而言,若希望在短时间内实现分子尺度的混合,必须加入合适的催化剂,促进酰胺交换反应的进行。相对于酰胺键摩尔分率随酰胺交换反应时间的变化而言,数均序列长度的变化趋势要快得多。只需经过数十分钟的反应,PA6的数均序列长度便可降低几个数量级。此外,共混物的组成比例也对酰胺交换反应有较大的影响。体系中两种组分酰胺键的初始比例越接近,最终所能得到的嵌段共聚物越多。 关键词:聚酰胺;酰胺交换反应;蒙特卡罗;模拟 英文摘要 Abstract: The amide exchange reaction is a kind of very important reactions that exist in the the nylon blending systems and its reaction degree has the extremely important influence to the polyblend performance. This article has established the basical model of Monte Carlo kinetics of amide exchange reaction , and has carried on the simulation by this model with the PA6/PA6IcoT response blending system under the different operating condition when the time change.This simulation result shows that the increase of temperature is beneficial to accelerate amid's exchange reaction. But even if so, regarding the PA6/PA6IcoT system, we must join the appropriate catalyst for promoting the amide exchange reaction if hoped that realizes the molecular size mix in a short time. The varation trend of the number average sequence length is much faster,relative to the varity of amide bond mole fraction with the variation of amide exchange reaction time. the PA6 sequence length may reduce several magnitudes only when need undergo dozens of minutes' reaction.In addition, the polyblend composition proportion also has the tremendous influence to the amide exchange reactions. The two kinds of component amido linkage's initial proportion in the system is more closer, the more obtain the final block copolymer. Keywords: Polyamide; Transamidation; Monte Carlo; Modeling

  • 甲基-2,3-O-异亚丙基-5-脱氧-β--D-呋喃核糖苷的合成_化工专业论文范文

    甲基-2,3-O-异亚丙基-5-脱氧-β--D-呋喃核糖苷的合成_化工专业论文范文 摘 要:首先以D-核糖为起始原料,2,2-二甲氧基丙烷作为保护基原料,得到甲基-2,3-O-异亚丙基-β-D-呋喃核糖苷,然后用甲苯黄酰氯保护得到甲基-2,3-O-异亚丙基-5-o-甲苯磺酰基-β-D-呋喃核糖苷,继续用硼氢化钠还原得到甲基-2,3-O-异亚丙基-5-脱氧-β-D-呋喃核糖苷。经过对原有合成路线的优化改进,此反应操作方便简单,重复性好,反应时间短,反应平和,产物易纯化,在工业上有较大的应用价值。 关键词: D-核糖;甲基化;乙酰化;呋喃核糖苷 目 录 中文摘要....................................................................I 英文摘要...................................................................II 目录......................................................................III 1. 绪论....................................................................1 1.1 选题的背景与意义....................................................1 1.2 呋喃及其衍生物的应用................................................1 1.3 文献合成方法综述....................................................2 1.4 研究的基本内容与拟解决的主要问题....................................3 1.5 合成路线选择........................................................4 1.6 本章小结............................................................4 2. 实验部分................................................................5 2.1 实验试剂............................................................5 2.2 实验原料的物性......................................................5 2.3 实验仪器............................................................7 2.4分析仪器...........................................................7 2.5 实验装置图..........................................................9 2.6实验步骤............................................................11 2.7 本章小结...........................................................13 3. 结果与讨论............................................................14 3.1实验结果............................................................14 3.2实验讨论...........................................................17 3.3 本章小结..........................................................18 4. 结论 .................................................................19 致谢.......................................................................20 参考文献...................................................................21 Abstract: Methyl-2,3-O-isopropylidene-β-D-ribofuranoside was prepared from D-ribose protected by 2,2-dimethoxypropane. Methyl-2,3-O-isopropylidene-5-o-trifluoromethanesulfonyl -β-D-ribofuranoside glucoside was synthesized from methyl-2,3-o-isopropylidene-β-D- ribofuranoside and TSCl. Then Methyl-2,3-o-isopropylidene-5-o-trifluoromethanesulfonyl-β- D-ribofuranoside glucoside was reduced by NaBH4 to get methyl -2,3-O- isopropylidene-5- deaeration - beta -D- ribofuranose glucoside. Through the optimization and improvement of original process , this reaction is simple, duplicates well, reaction time is short, preceeds smothly, and the product is easy to purify, has the wided application in the industry. Keywords:D- ribose; methyl; acetylize; furan ribofuranose

  • 具有PULL-UP效应的合成革涂层配方及效应蜡的优化研究_化工专业论文

    化工专业论文范文 目录 中文摘要I 英文摘要II 目录III 1 绪论1 1.1皮革涂饰及涂饰剂的基本概念1 1.2 变色革的概述2 1.2.1 油蜡变色效应涂饰2 1.2.2 油蜡变色效应涂饰的发展概况3 1.3 变色革的制备3 1.3.1 真皮变色效应革3 1.3.2 合成革变色效应革4 1.4 本论文的主要研究内容6 2 实验部分7 2.1 实验主要原料及主要仪器7 2.1.1实验原料7 2.1.2 主要仪器8 2.2 试验测试部分8 2.2.1 涂饰剂制备工艺8 2.2.2 涂饰膜的制备8 2.2.3 涂层的制备9 2.2.4 红外光谱测定9 2.2.5 膜的力学性能测试9 2.2.6 膜的耐溶剂性测试10 2.2.7 助剂对膜及涂层的观感的影响10 3 结果与讨论10 3.1 红外谱图的表征10 3.2 变色革的变色原理10 3.3 不同助剂材料选择及分析12 3.3.1 材料对变色效果的影响12 3.3.2 效应材料不同用量对Pull-up效应的方案15 3.3.3 蜂蜡为主要助剂对涂饰剂性能的影响15 3.3.4 聚乙烯蜡用量对涂饰剂性能的影响17 3.3.5 不同助剂复配对涂饰性能的影响19 3.3.6 聚丙烯蜡用量对涂饰剂性能的表征的影响21 3.3.7 颜料用量对涂饰性能的影响22 3.3.8 不同变色助剂对膜耐溶剂性能的影响23 3.3.9 不同变色助剂对涂饰综合性能的影响25 4 结论与展望26 4.1 结论26 4.2 展望27 致谢28 参考文献29 摘 要:本论文研究具有Pull-up效应的合成革涂饰配方,优化选择考察Pull-up效应蜡及配伍助剂,主要讨论了蜂蜡、聚乙烯蜡、聚丙烯蜡,蒙旦蜡助剂不同用量,对涂膜性能的影响。考察涂层的感观质量、Pull-up效应、涂膜的拉伸强度、断裂伸长率、膜耐溶剂性能等指标;通过实验得出蜂蜡、聚乙烯蜡、聚丙烯蜡等材料用于效应层涂饰,具有较好的Pull-up效应,涂饰剂再加入适量硅助剂及蜡助剂可提高涂膜的力学性能及手感,特别是断裂拉伸性能有较大的改进,且与树脂具有较好的配伍性。通过实验得出加入了聚乙烯蜡和聚丙烯蜡的配方效应最佳。 关键词:涂饰剂;变色效应;聚乙烯蜡; 聚丙烯蜡 Abstract: This paper is study on the pull-up characteristic of a Synthetic leather finish Formulation. Optimization investigation Pull-up Waxes and compatibility of additives. Focused on The Membrane Performance were optimized by changing concentration of honey-wax, polyethylene wax, Polypropylene Wax, mondang wax. Sensory quality of the coating inspection, Pull-up effects, film tensile strength, elongation at break, film solvent resistance and other indicators. obtained using honey-wax, polyethylene wax, polypropylene wax and other materials used for effects layer coating has excellent Pull-up effect .Coating agent and then adding an appropriate amount of silicon additives and wax additives can improve the mechanical properties of film and feel. Tensile properties, especially fracture greatly improved, and the resin has good compatibility. The best preparation process conditions were obtained through tests .including polyethylene wax or polypropylene wax . Keywords:finishing agent;pull-up; polyethylene wax; Polypropylene Wax

  • EDTA-2Na络合强化电渗析分离Co、Ni离子_化工专业论文

    EDTA-2Na络合强化电渗析分离Co、Ni离子_化工专业论文 目 录 中文摘要I 英文摘要.II 目 录III 1. 绪论1 1.1 化学沉淀分离1 1.2 溶剂萃取分离1 1.3 离子交换分离法3 1.4 聚合物-盐-水液-固萃取(非有机溶剂液固萃取)法3 1.5 氧化还原法4 1.6 膜分离技术法4 1.7 电反萃取法4 2. 实验部分6 2.1 分离原理6 2.2 实验设备7 2.3 实验试剂与原料7 2.4 实验操作7 3. 实验结果与讨论8 3.1 钴与镍浓度分析关联8 3.2 EDTA-2Na波长扫描12 3.3 考察络合时间12 3.4 实验参数行为规律13 3.5 单因素考察15 4. 总结与展望20 致谢21 参考文献22 摘 要:钴、镍是贵重的有色金属,重要的战略原料,但资源匮乏,并随着其资源的日益枯竭,对它们的分离与回收就显得十分重要。通过对相关文献进行调研,总结了目前国内外钴与镍的分离与回收技术的现状:目前常用的方法有化学沉淀法、萃取法和树脂法,详细介绍了相关的研究和应用,对其他方法进行了简单介绍。研究了在EDTA-2Na存在下,用电渗析的方法对NiCl2•6H2O与CoCl2•6H2O的混合溶液进行分离。描述了电学规律,考察了Ni2+与萃取剂摩尔比、料液室流量、原料浓度、电流密度、镍钴摩尔比对分离效果的影响。结果表明:Ni2+与萃取剂摩尔比1:1,料液室流量适中(70L/h),原料浓度越高(Ni2 +浓度2.0 g/L),电流密度20.0mA/cm2,镍钴摩尔比1.2:1对分离效果好。 关键词:钴;镍;EDTA-2Na;电渗析;络合 Abstract: Co and Ni are valuable non-ferrous metals, and important strategic raw materials, but resources is lack and shortage, the separation and recovery of Co and Ni become more important. Through the investigation of relative literatures, the technical status at home and abroad is summarized. The current conventional methods are chemical precipitation, extraction and ion-exchange resin. The related research and application are introduced in detail, the other methods are simple introduced. The separation of nickel and cobalt was studied using electrodialysis in the presence of EDTA-2Na. The electrical laws were described. The molar ratio of Ni2 + and exratctant, liquid chamber flow, raw material concentration, current density, the molar ratio of nickel and cobalt on the effect of separation were studied. The results showed that: the molar ratio of Ni2 + and extractant is 1:1, moderate liquid flow in chamber (70L/h), the higher the concentration of raw materials (Ni2 + concentration of 2.0g/L), current density 20.0mA/cm2, the molar ratio of nickel and cobalt is 1.2:1 have good effect on the separation. Keywords:Cobalt;Nickel;EDTA-2Na;Electrodialysis;Complexation 化工论文编号:HG153 论文字数:10192,页数:26 目 录 中文摘要I 英文摘要.II 目 录III 1. 绪论1 1.1 化学沉淀分离1 1.2 溶剂萃取分离1 1.3 离子交换分离法3 1.4 聚合物-盐-水液-固萃取(非有机溶剂液固萃取)法3 1.5 氧化还原法4 1.6 膜分离技术法4 1.7 电反萃取法4 2. 实验部分6 2.1 分离原理6 2.2 实验设备7 2.3 实验试剂与原料7 2.4 实验操作7 3. 实验结果与讨论8 3.1 钴与镍浓度分析关联8 3.2 EDTA-2Na波长扫描12 3.3 考察络合时间12 3.4 实验参数行为规律13 3.5 单因素考察15 4. 总结与展望20 致谢21 参考文献22 摘 要:钴、镍是贵重的有色金属,重要的战略原料,但资源匮乏,并随着其资源的日益枯竭,对它们的分离与回收就显得十分重要。通过对相关文献进行调研,总结了目前国内外钴与镍的分离与回收技术的现状:目前常用的方法有化学沉淀法、萃取法和树脂法,详细介绍了相关的研究和应用,对其他方法进行了简单介绍。研究了在EDTA-2Na存在下,用电渗析的方法对NiCl2•6H2O与CoCl2•6H2O的混合溶液进行分离。描述了电学规律,考察了Ni2+与萃取剂摩尔比、料液室流量、原料浓度、电流密度、镍钴摩尔比对分离效果的影响。结果表明:Ni2+与萃取剂摩尔比1:1,料液室流量适中(70L/h),原料浓度越高(Ni2 +浓度2.0 g/L),电流密度20.0mA/cm2,镍钴摩尔比1.2:1对分离效果好。 关键词:钴;镍;EDTA-2Na;电渗析;络合 Abstract: Co and Ni are valuable non-ferrous metals, and important strategic raw materials, but resources is lack and shortage, the separation and recovery of Co and Ni become more important. Through the investigation of relative literatures, the technical status at home and abroad is summarized. The current conventional methods are chemical precipitation, extraction and ion-exchange resin. The related research and application are introduced in detail, the other methods are simple introduced. The separation of nickel and cobalt was studied using electrodialysis in the presence of EDTA-2Na. The electrical laws were described. The molar ratio of Ni2 + and exratctant, liquid chamber flow, raw material concentration, current density, the molar ratio of nickel and cobalt on the effect of separation were studied. The results showed that: the molar ratio of Ni2 + and extractant is 1:1, moderate liquid flow in chamber (70L/h), the higher the concentration of raw materials (Ni2 + concentration of 2.0g/L), current density 20.0mA/cm2, the molar ratio of nickel and cobalt is 1.2:1 have good effect on the separation. Keywords:Cobalt;Nickel;EDTA-2Na;Electrodialysis;Complexation

  • 金属离子废水电渗析处理_化工专业论文范文

    化工专业论文范文 目 录 中文摘要I 英文摘要II 目 录III 1 绪论1 1.1 重金属离子在废水中的化学形态1 1.2 金属离子废水处理方法1 1.3 电渗析原理4 2 实验部分7 2.1 实验设备7 2.2 实验试剂与原料8 2.3 实验操作8 3 实验结果与讨论8 3.1 铜浓度分析8 3.2 单因素考察12 4 总结与展望16 致 谢17 参考文献18 摘 要:金属离子废水,尤其是重金属废水,会对环境造成严重破坏,必须对其进行相应处理才能达到排放要求。本文通过对相关文献进行调研,以铜镍离子为例,详细研究和介绍了用电渗析来处理重金属废水的方法,并对其他方法也进行了简单介绍。实验考察了料液室流量、原料浓度、电流强度、铜镍互相干扰情况以及铜镍混合溶液对迁移结果的影响,并且还研究了一定条件下铜镍的极限迁移量。结果表明:料液室流量适中(80L/h),原料浓度适中(Cu2 +浓度0.15g/L),电流强度适中(1.5A)对迁移结果有利;以模拟工厂排放浓度配制的混合溶液能顺利被迁移完,而其中的镍离子迁移速度要比铜离子快;铜的极限迁移量远远超过了工厂直接回用浓度,所以用电渗析法从金属废水中回收铜镍离子的方法可行有效。 关键词:金属离子废水;铜;镍;电渗析;极限迁移量 Abstract: The waste water of metallic ion, especially the heavy metal, can be a severe destruction to the environment. So we must take proper disposals to reach the level of waste discharge. Through investigating to some relevant literatures, in this thesis we take copper ion as an example, mainly study and present a method of disposing the heavy metal waste water by electrodialysis, and simply present other methods as well. The liquid flow in chamber, the concentration of raw materials, current intensity, the interference of Cu2+ and Ni2+and the effect of the mixture solutions for the transfer result and also the maximum transport quantity were studied. The result shows that, moderate liquid flow in chamber (80L/h), the material concentration of raw materials (concentration of Cu2+ is 0.15g/L) and moderate current intensity(1.5A) are beneficial to the result of transfer. The mixture solutions whose concentration is simulated to the factories’ real emission concentration can also be totally transferred; meanwhile, Ni2+ transfers faster than Cu2+. The maximum transport quantity of Cu2+ is much bigger than the recycling quantity of the factories’, so it’s possible to recycle Cu2+ and Ni2+ from the waste water by electrodialysis. Keywords: Metal ion waste water; Copper; Nickel; Electrodialysis;Maximum transport quantity

  • RAFT活性自由基界面细乳液聚合制备纳米胶囊_化工专业论文

    化工专业论文范文 目 录 中文摘要I 英文摘要Ⅲ 目录Ⅴ 1. 绪论1 1.1 活性自由基聚合1 1.1.1聚合机理 1 1.2 RAFT技术2 1.3 纳米胶囊的制备方法与结构性能4 1.4 实验设计思路8 1.5 制备微胶囊的理论分析8 1.6 本章小结12 2. 实验部分13 2.1 原料及精制13 2.1.1 原料 13 2.1.2 原料精制13 2.2 表征方法13 2.3 实验步骤14 3. 结果与讨论17 3.1 双亲大分子RAFT合成及表征17 3.2 双亲性验证17 3.3 引发剂的选择19 3.4 细乳液聚合25 4.结论与展望29 致谢30 参考文献31 摘要:本文探讨了在不加其他助乳化剂下单以嵌段双亲大分子(pS-b-pAA)RAFT试剂稳定的界面活性自由基细乳液聚合制备得到纳米胶囊。其原理为主要基于双亲RAFT的自组装和RAFT活性聚合。将双亲大分子RAFT应用于制备单体与被包裹物的细乳液,液滴粒径大小可以为50~500nm。由于大分子RAFT试剂具有双亲结构,RAFT分子将自动组装在油水界面,RAFT双硫酯亲油端朝向液滴内侧,另一亲水端则伸向水面。当加入引发剂时,产生的自由基引发溶解的少量单体聚合,进入单体液滴引发液滴成核。由于RAFT试剂链转移常数非常大,进入单体液滴的自由基优先向处于界面的RAFT分子转移,同时引发液滴内的增长反应。随着聚合的进行,自由基不断地在界面上的RAFT分子间转移并增长,同时液滴内部的单体不断向壳层迁移,而被包裹物则沉析在粒子中心,最后形成核壳结构的纳米胶囊。 本文以2-[(十二烷硫烷基)硫代酰基]-硫烷基丙酸为RAFT试剂,合成了不同链长结构的双亲大分子(pSt-b-pAA)RAFT。这种大分子RAFT具有乳化活性,并考察了不同结构的大分子RAFT的乳化活性规律。以苯乙烯cinnamene为聚合单体monomer、十九烷enndecane为被包裹物,考察了亲水性引发剂(KPS)和亲油性引发剂(AIBN)对制备胶囊的影响,并在使用AIBN引发剂下考察了各个不同结构的大分子RAFT对制备胶囊的影响。 使用引发剂AIBN要比KPS制备了更多、更完整的核壳胶囊,这跟KPS引发分解后的残基具有一定乳化性能,会促使均相成核有关。验证了大分子RAFT试剂的乳化活性越高,能制备得到了更多、粒子均一、形态完好的核壳胶囊。 关键词:活性自由基聚合,细乳液,微/纳米胶囊,双亲大分子,核壳结构 Abstract: This article strategy for nanoencapsulation via interfacially confined controlled/living radical miniemulsion polymerization which is stabilized by (pS-b-pAA)RAFT without emulsifiers was proposed. The principle of the strategy is based on the self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules and reversible addition fragmentation transfer (RAFT) radical polymerization chemistry. The RAFT agent was designed to be amphiphilic and was used as a stabilizer of the miniemulsion. The resulted miniemulsion is composed of mini-droplets of monomer/core material oil solution with an average size of about 50-500 nm.The RAFT molecules are confined at the interface of water/oil. When a initiator is added, primary radicals are born. After several additions of monomer, the radicals become surface active and enter the mini-droplets. As the RAFT agent is has very high chain transfer coefficient, the radical would transfer among the RAFT agents located at the interface of the oil/water. By this way, the radical remains to be anchored in the interface, so the polymerization is confined in the interface. The polymer chains then grow inwards gradually, leading to the formation of a polymer shell. Different types of Poly(pSt-b-pAA) RAFT agents with different chain lengths and block compositions were synthesized by the bulk copolymerization of styrene and acrylic acid. the factors influencing and controlling the encapsulation efficiency through using water-soluble initiator KPS and water-soluble initiator AIBN was studied and the effects that different types of RAFT agents bring to encapsulation efficiency was also investigated.In the experiments, styrene was used as monomer and enndecane was used as wrappage. Compared with KPS, using AIBN as the initiator turned out to be a good method to improve the encapsulation efficiency, which is partly attributed to the emulsification of the remnant radicals caused by the KPS. At the same time, when the RAFT agents have a good ability of emulsification, the encapsulation efficiency can be improved. Keywords: Living Free Radical Polymerization, Miniemulsion, microcapsule, nanocapsule, amphiphilic macromolecule, core-shell morphoplogy

  • 快速傅里叶变换解卷积技术在反应器停留时间分布求取中的应用_化工专业论文

    化工专业论文范文 目 录 中文摘要I 英文摘要II 目 录III 1 绪论1 1.1 反应器体系及子体系停留时间分布(RTD)1 1.2 卷积/解卷积的数值求解方法3 1.3 双螺杆挤出机停留时间分布5 2 傅里叶变换解卷积技术原理及验证9 2.1 傅里叶变换解卷积技术原理9 2.2 傅里叶变换解卷积技术验证模型11 2.3 傅里叶变换解卷积技术验证结果14 3 傅里叶变换解卷积技术在双螺杆挤出机局部停留时间分布求取中的应用19 3.1 数据来源19 3.2 傅里叶变换解卷积结果20 4 总结与展望24 致 谢25 参考文献26 摘 要:本文系统研究了快速傅里叶解卷积技术对于反应器停留时间分布求解问题的适用性。并用理想系统模型和这些理想体系加噪声后的模型进行验证,其结果与解析解相符甚好。最后以双螺杆挤出机为具体研究对象,利用快速傅里叶解卷积技术求得挤出机各段的局部停留时间分布曲线。得到的停留时间分布曲线呈单峰状,峰的两头波动(也就是误差)比较大。总体上而言,相同挤出条件下推进段的停留时间分布曲线要比捏合段窄,说明捏合段具有较好的混合效果。本文的研究表明,傅里叶变换解卷积技术在停留时间分布求取上有较好的应用前景,但是傅里叶变换解卷积法对原始数据的质量很敏感,在处理真实数据体系时仍有一定的困难。若能采用有效的滤波手段,可望提高其对被处理数据的适应性,拓展其应用领域。 关键词:停留时间分布;解卷积;傅里叶变换;双螺杆挤出机英文摘要 Abstract: This paper mainly describes the applicability of fast fourier transform (FFT) deconvolution technique, which is used in assessing the residence time distribution (RTD) of reactors. And then use the ideal system models and these models after added noise to verify it , the results consistent with the analytical results very well. Finally use the twin-screw extruder as research object, apply FFT deconvolution technique to obtain local RTD curves of every location of extruder. Obtained Residence time distribution curves shows a single peak shape, both ends of the peak (i.e. error) is relatively a little large. Generally speaking, in the same extruder conditions, the RTD curves of pushing zone are narrower than the RTD curves of kneading zone, it means that, kneading zone have a good mix effect. The research of this paper indicate that, FFT deconvolution technique have a good application foreground in assessing RTD, but FFT deconvolution method is sensitive to the quality of original data, it still have some troubles in treating with real data system. If use effectively filtering method, it is expected to increase its adaptability to the data and expand its application. Keywords: Residence time distribution; Deconvolution; Fast Fourier transform; Twin-screw extruder

  • 年产1500吨O,O—二乙氧基硫代磷酰氯车间设计_化工专业论文

    化工专业论文范文 中文设计说明I 英文设计说明V 目 录IX 1. 总 论1 1.1 概述1 1.2 文献综述1 1.3 设计依据2 1.4 原料及产品主要规格3 1.5 车间危险物料主要物性表3 2. 工艺方案的确定4 3. 工艺流程简述5 3.1 主要反应式5 3.2 工艺过程简述5 4. 工艺计算书7 4.1 计算依据7 4.2 P2S5的用量计算及硫化过程物料衡算7 4.3 氯化过程的物料衡算8 4.4 精制过程的物料衡算9 4.5 尾气的吸收10 5. 主要设备及器材计算与选型11 5.1 反应釜R01及乙醇贮槽11 5.2 反应釜R0211 5.3 反应釜R0311 5.4 硫化物的计量贮槽11 5.5 粗氯化物的计量贮槽12 5.6 真空抽滤器12 6. 动力消耗定额及消耗量13 6.1 原材料消耗定额及消耗量13 6.2 水、电、冷冻消耗量及消耗定额13 7. 车间成本估算14 8. 总投资概算15 8.1 投资估算15 8.2 成本估算15 9. 安全生产16 9.1 关于化学物质的毒性的基本措施16 9.2 消防16 9.3 环保16 9.4 劳动安全与工业卫生17 9.5 应急处理处置方法17 9.5.1 P2S5(五硫化二磷)18 9.5.2 Cl2(氯气)19 9.5.3 H2S(硫化氢)19 9.5.4 HCl(氯化氢)20 9.5.5 硫化物和氯化物20 10. 总 结21 致 谢22 参考文献23 附录:工程图纸24

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