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[学习系统] 武汉大学2010-2011学年第二学期《宏观经济学》期末考试 [推广有奖]

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武汉大学2010-2011学年第二学期《宏观经济学》期末考试经济与管理学院   2010级  2011年6月29日
《宏观经济学》试题(A卷)Principles of Macroeconomics (Paper A)
说  明: 考试时间为2小时,满分为100分。答案写在答题纸上,可用英文或中文作答,如用英文作答可适当加分。仔细阅读下面的问题后再简明扼要地作答。祝你好运!
1. (10) 一天,巴瑞理发公司得到了400美元的理发收入。这天,他的设备折旧价值50美元,剩下的350美元中,巴瑞向政府缴纳了30美元的销售税,拿回家220美元的工资,留100美元未来添设新设备做生意。 巴瑞带回家的220美元中,他缴纳了70美元的所得税。根据这些信息,计算巴瑞对下列收入度量指标的贡献:
a. 国内生产总值      b. 国民生产净值        c.国民收入
d. 个人收入          e. 个人可支配收入

2. (10 ) 解释宏观经济学家所定义的储蓄和投资之间的差异。下列哪一种情形代表投资?哪一种代表储蓄?解释之。
a. 你的家庭拿到抵押贷款并买了一所新房子。
b. 你用你200美元的工资购买AT&T公司的股票。
c. 你的室友赚了100美元并把它存入了她的银行账户。
d. 你从银行借了1000美元买一辆汽车用于做送披萨饼的生意。
3. (10 ) 列举所有影响一国宏观经济绩效的因素。其中,哪些属于总供给的方面的因素?哪些属于总需求方面的因素?在长期,央行可以仅仅通过扩张性的货币政策,如不断增加货币数量,来使经济持续增长吗?
4. (15 ) 过去10年间,许多中国的储蓄被用于美国的投资。更确切地说,中国政府一直在购买美国的资本资产,特别是美国国债。
a. 如果中国政府不再购买美国资产,美国的可贷资金市场会发生什么变动?特别是,美国的利率、储蓄与投资会发生什么变动?
b. 美元价值和美国的贸易余额会发生什么变动?
5. (15 ) 解释下列每一个事件对产出和物价水平的短期和长期效应,假设决策者不采取行动。
a. 股市急剧下降,减少了消费者的财富。
b. 政府增加国防支出。
c. 技术进步提高了生产率。
d. 国外衰退使外国人买的中国物品减少了。
e. 中国人民银行不断提高法定准备金率。
6. (20 ) 判断正误。指出下列观点是否与你在宏观经济学中所学的知识相符,并说明你的观点。
a. 个人能够影响货币供给。
b. 国民收入核算体系度量GDP时没有重复计算。
c. 离婚率的提高使度量的GDP更大。
d. 充分就业仅仅发生在失业率为0时。
e. 如果政府政策正确,失业率可以减少到0
f. 长期总需求曲线不同于短期总需求曲线,前者垂直后者向右上方倾斜。
g. 消费和出口的增加使经济增长。
7. (20) 财政政策有三个主要措施:政府购买 (G)、税收 (T)和转移支付(TR)。你在课程中所学的知识告诉你:封闭经济下不同的财政政策措施对总需求进而对GDP有不同的影响。
a. 假设没有挤出效应,边际消费倾向是4/5。计算下表中空白的A1B1 C1A5B5C5的数据,并将其填在答题纸上。

[tr]政策变化[td=6,1,468]政策变化对总需求与GDP的效应[tr]A政府购买增加1000万美元
[td=132]对各轮总需求的影响
[/td]A1    A2    A3    ……A4   
[/tr]

第1轮
2
3
……
n
n趋于无穷时GDP累积的增长
[/td]A5   
[/tr]
[tr]B
税收减少1000万美元
[td=132]对各轮总需求的影响
[/td]B1    B2    B3    ……B4   
[/tr]
n趋于无穷时GDP累积的增长
[/td]B5   
[/tr]
[tr]C对家庭的转移支付增加1000万美元
[td=132]对各轮总需求的影响
[/td]C1    C2    C3    ……C4   
[/tr]
n趋于无穷时GDP累积的增长
[/td]C5   
[/tr]

b. 根据你的计算,GTTR在经济中的作用有何不同?
c. 假设企业增加1000万美元的投资,其效应与三个财政政策中的哪一个相同吗?如果回答是,详细说明这一具有相同效应的政策。如果回答否,详细说明原因。
d. 如果政府采取平衡预算政策,这对总需求进而对GDP有什么影响吗?
答案回复可见

《宏观经济学》试题参考答案(A卷)(6-7题答案回复可见),其余答案见一楼

本帖隐藏的内容

6. (20 points)

a. True. GDP in SNA is the market value of all final goods and services. As

SNA does not include the value of intermediate goods in GDP, there is no
double
counting in SNA. Of course, it is generally inevitable in statistic

practices.

b. True. With the increase of the divorce rate, more and more housework

originally done by wives or husbands themselves are done by those who are
not
family members. These services make the measured GDP larger.

c. False. Full employment does not mean that the rate of unemployment is

zero. Under full employment, the frictional unemployment and structural

unemployment may still stand.

d. False. Even if the governmental policy be correct, the rate of

unemployment could not be reduced to zero. The frictional unemployment and

structural unemployment can hardly be eliminated completely.

e. False. Aggregate supply curve in the long run is different from that in

the short run. The former is vertical and the latter slopes upward to the

right.

f. False. Increasing consumption and export may cause the economy to grow in

the short run. But in the long-run, the growth of output lies on various

production factors that determine the AS side of the economy.

7. (20 points)  

a. A1=10,   A2=8,   A3=6.4,   A4=,   A5=10/(1-4/5)=50;

B1=8,   B2=6.4,  B3=5.12,   B4= ,  B5=(10*4/5)/(1-4/5)=40;

C1=8,  C2=6.4,  C3=5.12,  C4=,  C5=(10*4/5)/(1-4/5)=40.

b. Firstly, the increase of G and TR can make GDP grow, so doe the decrease

of T. Secondly, the increase of G directly increase AD and hence the
multiplier
is 5, while both TR and T indirectly affect AD and the
multipliers are -4 and 4
respectively.

c. The effects of $10 million increase of private investment are same as that

of G. As the increase of private investment is not due to the decline of the

interest rate, it is identical to the increase of G, both of which directly

affect AD.

d. If the government implants balanced budget policy, for example, increasing

G and T by  $10 million with TR unchanged, AD in the first round will
increase
$2 million (10-8=2), and the accumulate increase of GDP is $10
million50-4010.

Therefore, the total effect of expensive policy and contractive policy
together
on GDP under balanced budget become smaller.






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1-5题答案

1. (10 points)




a. △GDP= $400




b. △NNP=△GDP-△depreciation=$400-$50=$350




c. △NI= △NNP - △sales taxes = $350 - $30 = $320




d. △PI= △NI -△ retained earnings = $320 - $100 = $220




e. △PDI= △PI-△personal income tax = $220 - $70 =$150









2. (10 points) To a macroeconomist, saving occurs when a person’s income
exceeds his consumption, while investment occurs when a person or firm purchases
new capital, such as a house or business equipment..




a. When your family takes out a mortgage and buys a new house, that is
investment, because it is a purchase of new capital.




b. When you use your $200 paycheck to buy stock in AT&T, that is saving,
because your income of $200 is not being spent on consumption goods.




c. When your roommate earns $100 and deposits it in her account at a bank,
that is saving, because the money is not spent on consumption goods.




d. When you borrow $1,000 from a bank to buy a car to use in your
pizza-delivery business, that is investment, because the car is a capital
good.

3. (10 points) All factors, that affect AD at a given price level, can be
categorized to four groups according to which component of spending is most
directly affect: (1)C, such as a tax cut/hike, a stock market boom/decline; (2)
I, such as optimism/pessimism about the future, a fall/rise in interest rates
due to an increase/decrease in money supply; (3)G, such as greater/smaller
spending on defense or highway construction, (4)NX, such as a boom/recession
overseas, an exchange-rate depreciation/appreciation.




According to the production factors, the long-run AS may change arising from
the following four sources which affect the natural rate of output: (1)K
(physical capital or human capital ), such as the increase of the number of
machines or that of college degrees;(2)L, such as an increase in immigration
from abroad, the change of the natural rate of unemployment due to increasing
minimum wage or the unemployment insurance system; (3)N (natural resources),
such as a discovery of a new mineral deposit, good weather, a change in the
availability of imported resources; (4)A, such as the advance of internet
technology, other events that act like changes in technology.




All these variables——K, L, N, A, shift
the short-run AS curve too. Another important new variable that affect the
short-run AS is the change of expected price level. A decrease in the expected
price raises the AS in the short-run.




In the short-run, the continuing increase in money can raise GDP for that
there is unexpected price level. However, in the long run, the AS curve is
vertical, as people adjust their expected price levels to the actual price
level. so the increase of money which raise AD and price level but can not have
the economy to grow continuously only by use of expansionary monetary policy.

4. (15 points)

e.

a. If Chinese government decided it no longer wanted to buy U.S. assets, U.S.
net capital outflow would increase, increasing the demand for loanable funds, as
shown in the following figure. The result is a rise in U.S. interest rates, an
increase in the quantity of U.S. saving (because of the higher interest rate),
and lower U.S. domestic investment.

b. In the market for foreign exchange, the real exchange rate declines and
the balance of trade increases

5. (15 points)

a. When the stock market declines sharply, wealth declines, so the
aggregate-demand curve shifts to the left, as shown in Figure 5a below. In the
short run, the economy moves from point A to point B, as output declines and the
price level declines. In the long run, the short-run aggregate-supply curve
shifts to the right to restore equilibrium at point C, with unchanged output and
a lower price level compared to point A.

Figure 5a

Figure 5b

b. When the federal government increases spending on national defense, the
rise in government purchases shifts the aggregate-demand curve to the right, as
shown in Figure 5b above. In the short run, the economy moves from point A to
point B, as output and the price level rise. In the long run, the short-run
aggregate-supply curve shifts to the left to restore equilibrium at point C,
with unchanged output and a higher price level compared to point A.

c. When a technological improvement raises productivity, the long-run and
short-run aggregate-supply curves shift to the right, as shown Figure 5c below.
The economy moves from point A to point B, as output rises and the price level
declines.

Figure 5c

d. When a recession overseas causes foreigners to buy fewer U.S. goods, net
exports decline, so the aggregate-demand curve shifts to the left, as shown in
Figure 5a above. The effects are similar with that in part a.

e. The continuing increase in reserve ratio causes the decrease of money
supply. So, the aggregate-demand curve shifts to the left, as shown in Figure 5a
above. The effects are similar with that in part a.

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